How the Protect+Defend Works to Help Boost Your Immune System – Spore Life Sciences

Free Shipping on ALL Orders

How the Protect+Defend Works to Help Boost Your Immune System

What Is It?
This adaptogenic blend contains a plethora of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals to supercharge your immune system, boost your metabolism, and improve your gut health every day.
 
What’s In It?
This formula contains a mix of different mushrooms designed for supercharged immune function and longevity including:
  • Turkey tail - for its immune boosting, anti-cancer, and gut health properties,
  • Chaga - to support overall health,
  • Reishi - to enhance immune function and flood the body and mind with tranquility
  • Maitake - for metabolism support and immune-boosting power.
  • Elderberry - for rich nutritional and antioxidants profile
  • Vitamin C - to boost immunity and risk of chronic disease
  • Vitamin D - strengthen immune function and fights disease
  • Zinc - rich in antioxidants 

What Does It Do?
Protect + Defend’s rich profile of phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids, and polyphenols, as well as additions of vitamins B, B-12, C, and D and minerals will support your overall health and keep your body’s defense operating at its full capacity. It also helps with metabolism support, immune strength and support, anti-aging, and longevity, and strengthening liver function and gut health.
 
How Does It Work?
The Protect + Defend formula provides an intelligent array of fungal molecules demonstrated in the scientific literature to offer wellness properties.

Reishi mushrooms, for example, called “the mushroom of immortality” [1], have been studied for their immune-enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, and antimicrobial properties. [2] Ganoderma lucidum – the species relevant to this formula – is reported to have over 400 bioactive compounds mostly comprised of polysaccharides and triterpenoids. The immune-enhancing properties of reishi polysaccharides work by increasing the amounts of key immune cells such as natural killer, B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte white blood cells, dendritic cells, phagocytes that protect our bodies from foreign particles and may also be examples of white blood cells. A more robust immune system, in turn, is vital in cancer treatment, and reishi polysaccharides stimulate cancer resistance through their immune-enhancing capabilities, by inducing apoptosis (cell death) of cancerous cells, and through their anti-cancer preventing activity. [3,4] Reishi triterpenes offer anti-cancer properties as well, through their toxicity to cancer cells, anti-metastatic effects, and induction of apoptosis. [3-5] Reishi polysaccharides and triterpenes have shown antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, with the terpenes presenting higher antioxidative capacities. The mushroom’s polysaccharides have also demonstrated anti-aging properties through their ability to protect fibroblasts (cells that provides structural framework in mammalian tissue and aids wound healing) from harmful ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. [6] The UVB treated cells revealed increased signs of aging and reactive oxygen species and decreased cell viability, but when cells were treated with UVB and reishi polysaccharides, the UVB reactive oxygen species were eliminated. Reishi mushrooms also have been used for their sedative, calming properties. In one study, a reishi extract showed similar anti-anxiety properties as the pharmaceutical drug diazepam. [7] Reishi powder also diminished fatigue, anxiety, and depression, and provided a better quality of life in 48 breast cancer survivors. [8]

Glucans from Grifola frondosa or maitake mushrooms provide strong antioxidant and immune-supporting properties [9-11], providing evidence for anti-aging capabilities. Antioxidative properties worked by augmenting key enzymes like superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, which in turn, catalyze the destruction of the superoxide radical and reduce lipid hydroperoxides to alcohols and hydrogen peroxide to water, respectively. Additionally, these glucans increased interleukine-2 (IL-2) production, an immunocytokine that has strong immune-enhancing properties providing the most effective cytokine for T cell biology (a type of white blood cell), as well as the ability to boost the activity of natural killer cells, another type of lymphocyte vital to our immune systems. Malondialdehyde (a common marker for oxidative stress) content in the liver was reduced, further demonstrating maitake’s antioxidant properties. [10] What’s more, α-glucan from maitake offers anti-tumor activity by promoting the production of cells that enhance our immune systems like tumor necrosis factor α, different interleukins, and through macrophage cell activation. [12] And a human clinical trial showed that maitake mushrooms led to increased antibodies in in response to influenza type A virus H1N1 after study participants took 20 maitake tablets per day. [13] Maitake mushrooms also help improve metabolism, showing increased fat metabolism [14,15] and other age-related metabolic issues such as glucose/insulin metabolism (e.g., hyperglycemia) [16].

Chaga mushrooms offer anticancer, immune-enhancing, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-mutagenic (gene-protecting) properties. [17] Chaga contains compounds such as 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol (a triterpene), and lanosterol and each of these molecules showed effectiveness against multiple cancer cell lines with low toxicity to normal cells. [18] Polysaccharides extracted from chaga have reduced tumor size. [19] Chaga mushrooms also provide immune support, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. [17] For example, chaga mushroom dosing led to decreased DNA damage and an improvement in deformed structures in zebrafish exposed to UVB radiation. [20] Chaga antioxidant capability prevented the formation of reactive oxygen species helping lessen oxidative stress induced by UV treatment and reduced the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines brought about by the radiation. [21] Like reishi mushrooms, chaga aids as an antihyperglycemic agent due to its antioxidative properties and its ability to provide protection against cellular damage. [22] Chaga mushrooms also provide protection against liver injury by eliminating free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of key enzymes from the induced damage, and decreasing malondialdehyde formation. [23]

Like the other mushrooms in Protect + Defend, turkey tail mushrooms provide strong antioxidant properties. [24] In addition to polysaccharides and triterpenes, turkey tail offers many phenolic species like flavonols and flavonoids like quercetin. And also like other mushrooms within Protect + Defend, turkey tail mushrooms demonstrate genoprotective capabilities. [25] In addition to its polysaccharides, turkey tail contains polysaccharides that are also bound to proteins in complexes called polysaccharopeptides. Krestin (PSK) and polysaccharide peptide (PSP) are two such molecules that have strong immune-enhancing properties. PSP, for example, has been shown to increase white blood cells [26] and PSK stimulates natural killer immune cells. [27] PSK has also shown powerful anticancer properties, with one study measuring an increased survival in colon cancer patients who received PSK as an adjuvant immunochemotherapy. [28] An adjuvant therapy seeks to keep the cancer from coming back post-treatment, and an immunotherapy targets the immune system. Turkey tail mushrooms also increase gut health since they contain prebiotics. One study found that consuming 3.6 g per day of PSP from turkey tail led to beneficial microbiome changes and reduced the growth of infectious bacteria such as E. coli and Shigella. [29] Another study measured higher concentrations of beneficial gut bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus while detrimental bacteria like Clostridium and Staphylococcus were lessened. [30]

The use of elderberry extract provides a well-known supplement for combating the common cold and influenza and has provided respiratory benefits to air travelers. [31,32]

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and supports cellular functions that improve immunity, in part through its supporting in the proliferation of key white blood cells. [33] It also helps treat and prevent respiratory and systemic infections.

Vitamin D3 helps fight disease such as reducing one’s risk of heart disease [34] and reducing the probability of influenza infection [35]. It also has been implicated as improving the symptoms of depression. [36]

Zinc citrate is a dietary supplement that provides antioxidant properties, strengthens the immune system, and promotes healthy aging. [37]
 
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
 
References
[1] Stamets P. (2000). Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
[2] Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Baghel RK, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009;10(8):717-742.
[3] Cör D, Knez Ž, Knez Hrnčič M. Antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase effect of Ganoderma lucidum terpenoids and polysaccharides: A review. Molecules. 2018;23(3):649.
[4] Paterson R.R.M. Ganoderma—A therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry. 2006;68:1985–2001.
[5] Sohretoglu D, Huang S. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides as an anti-cancer agent. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018;18(5):667-674.
[6] Zeng Q, Zhou F, Lei L, et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides protect fibroblasts against UVB-induced photoaging. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15(1):111-116.
[7] Ali N, Muhammad A, & Akbar S.A. Anxiolytic-like activity of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in mice. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences. 2016;5:57-60.
[8] Zhao H, Zhang Q, Zhao L, Huang X, Wang J, Kang X. Spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum improves cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:809614.
[9] Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J. Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts. Ann Transl Med. 2014;2(2):14.
[10] Hong L, Weiyub W, Qina W, Shuzhena G, and Lebin W. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of a a-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa). Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2013;24(4):409-418.
[11] Yeh JY, Hsieh LH, Wu KT, Tsai CF. Antioxidant properties and antioxidant compounds of various extracts from the edible basidiomycete Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Molecules. 2011;16(4):3197-3211.
[12] Masuda Y, Nakayama Y, Tanaka A, Naito K, Konishi M. Antitumor activity of orally administered maitake α-glucan by stimulating antitumor immune response in murine tumor. PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173621.
[13] Nishihira J, Sato M, Tanaka A, Okamatsu M, Azuma T. et al. Maitake mushrooms (Grifola frondosa) enhances antibody production in response to influenza vaccination in healthy adult volunteers concurrent with alleviation of common cold symptoms. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 2017; 7:462-482.
[14] Kabir Y, Hoshino T, Komai M, Kimura S. Histopathological changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats after feeding shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushroom diets. J Clin Biochem Nutr 1989;6:187-193.
[15] Kubo K, Nanba H. The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern Ther Health Med 1996;2:62-66.
[16] Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan AY, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;237(1-2):129-136.
[17] Balandaykin ME, Zmitrovich IV. Review on chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher basidiomycetes): realm of medicinal applications and approaches on estimating its resource potential. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(2):95-104.
[18] Chung MJ, Chung CK, Jeong Y, Ham SS. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells. Nutr Res Pract. 2010;4(3):177-182.
[19] Mizuno T, Zhuang C, Abe K, Okamoto H, Kiho T, et al. Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 1999;1:301-316.
[20] Eid JI, Mohanty S, & Das B. Genoprotective effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) polysaccharides in UVB-exposed embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) through coordinated expression of DNA repair genes. bioRxiv. 2020.
[21] Softa M, Percoco G, Lati E, & Bony P. Birch sap (Betula alba) and chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and DNA protection/repair activity in vitro. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications. 2019;09:188-205.
[22] Diao BZ, Jin WR, Yu XJ. Protective effect of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:841496.
[23] Hong KB, Noh DO, Park Y, Suh HJ. Hepatoprotective activity of water extracts from chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative liver injury in Primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(11):1069-1076.
[24] Janjušević L, Karaman M, Šibul F, et al. The lignicolous fungus Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd (1920): a promising natural source of antiradical and AChE inhibitory agents. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017;32(1):355-362.
[25] Knežević A, Živković L, Stajić M, Vukojević J, Milovanović I, Spremo-Potparević B. Antigenotoxic effect of Trametes spp. extracts against DNA damage on human peripheral white blood cells. Scientific World Journal. 2015;2015:146378.
[26] Sekhon BK, Sze DM, Chan WK, et al. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment. Food Chem. 2013;138(4):2201-2209.
[27] Lu H, Yang Y, Gad E, et al. TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the antitumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(21):6742-6753.
[28] Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K, et al. Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006;55(4):404-411.
[29] Pallav K, Dowd SE, Villafuerte J, et al. Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial. Gut Microbes. 2014;5(4):458-467.
[30] Eliza WL, Fai CK, Chung LP. Efficacy of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor) on survival in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2012;6(1):78-87.
[31] Tiralongo E, Wee SS, Lea RA. Elderberry supplementation reduces cold duration and symptoms in air-travellers: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrients. 2016;8(4):182.
[32] Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 2004;32(2):132-140.
[33] Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and immune function. Nutrients. 2017;9(11):1211.
[34] Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2008;117(4):503-511.
[35] Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1255-1260.
[36] Jorde R, Sneve M, Figenschau Y, Svartberg J, Waterloo K. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double-blind trial. J Intern Med. 2008;264(6):599-609.
[37] Mocchegiani E, Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Malavolta M. NK and NKT cells in aging and longevity: role of zinc and metallothioneins. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29(4):416-42 

newsletter